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Chemistry 2

Chemistry Overview

Definition
Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties and interactions with other matter.

Summary

Chemistry is used to identify and characterize
chemical and physical reactions that can span all academic field. 


Fields of Chemistry
analytical chemistry,
biochemistry,
electrochemistry,
environmental chemistry,
inorganic chemistry,
organic chemistry,
physical chemistry,
biophysical chemistry.

Matter

Definition
Matter is material that has mass and a volume.


Summary
Matter is anything that takes up space and has a weight. It is a general and broad term used to describe something of existence. 
 

Natural States (phases) of Matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma

A Few Matter Mixtures
Slurry
Sludge

 

Phase Changes

Similar phase changes can happen for different reasons. Think about how and when they occur, and what word is used to describe the process with its specific reaction direction.

Phases: Liquid to Solid
Processes
- Solidification (Freezing)... Example: water to ice.
- Precipitation...Example: vapor to ice.


Phases: Solid to Liquids
Processes
- Solidification (
Freezing)... Example: water to ice.Precipitation...Example: water to ice.

Phases: Solid to Gas
Processes
- Solidification (
Freezing)... Example: water to ice.Precipitation...Example: water to ice.

Phases: Gas to Solid
Processes
- Solidif
... Example: 
Precipitation...Example: .

Phases: Gas to Liquid
Processes
- Solidif... Example: 
Precipitation...Example: .

Phases: Liquid to Gas
Processes- Solidif... Example: 
Precipitation...Example: .
 

Molecules, Elements Atoms, and Subatomic Particles

Everything is made up of matter.
All molecules are made of elements, all elements are made of atoms, and all atoms are made of subatomic particles.

Molecule
A structure of atoms

Element
Simplest forms of matter

Atom
The structure of an element

Subatomic Particle
Building block of an atom

Periodics Table of Elements

This table is a great reference source for a chemist and many other scientists. The table organizes the known elements and provide easy comparability. It is fairly standardized, but can be found in a variety of colors and additional information.

Major information provided from the table:
Element name & 2 letter abbreviation
Atomic number
Atomic mass
Physical characteristics
Chemical characteristics
Subatomic characteristics
Trends for atomic size, electronegativity, and Ionization energy

 

Periodics Table of Elements

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Columns are called a group or family (vertical, up and down).
Rows are called periods (horizontal, left and right).

Bonding Elements

Normally, bonds are explained with subatomic particles and electromagnetic forces, but we will simplify it by saying atoms of elements.

 

Types of Bonds
Single Bond
Double Bond
Triple Bond

Water molecule with two single bonds. 
Same molecule, drawn 3 different ways.

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Two oxygen atoms with one double bond.
Drawn 3 different ways.

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Two nitrogen atoms with one triple bond.
Drawn 3 different ways.

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Acids and Bases

Scientists measure the amount of hydrogen ion in a solution and compare its acidity or alkalinity on the pH scale.

1-6 is acidic
7 is neutral
8-14 is basic (alkaline)

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pH scale uses a log scale, which means counting by tens.
So, pH 2 is 10x more different than pH 1.
pH 3 is 100x more different than pH 1.
pH 4 is 1000x more different than pH 1.
and so on....

 

Bonding

Order does not matter.

Bonding

Order does not matter.

Reactions

Lets start with explaining this:
Chemical versus Physical changes or reactions...
Chemical reaction:

Physical reaction:
 

Draw Atoms

Lots of ways to draw the structures of molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles.

Draw Molecules

Order does not matter.

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